Kanlaon Volcano Erupts

Alert Level 2 for Affected Region

Kanlaon Volcano Eruption

An “explosive eruption” at Kanlaon Volcano on Negros Island occurred on Monday evening, June 3, leading state volcanologists to elevate the alert status to Level 2.

In a bulletin released at 8 pm on the same day, the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Phivolcs) reported that the eruption began at 6:51 pm and continued for 6 minutes. This event generated a substantial and glowing plume that swiftly ascended to a height of 5,000 meters, equivalent to 5 kilometers.

Additionally, “probable short pyroclastic density currents (PDCs)” were noted, traveling approximately 2 to 3 kilometers down the southern and southeastern flanks of Kanlaon. PDCs are composed of fragmented volcanic material, gases, and ash that descend the volcano’s slopes at high velocity. Before the eruption, Phivolcs detected a “relatively strong volcano-tectonic earthquake,” indicating significant underground activity.

Alert Level 2 indicates “increasing unrest” due to “shallow magmatic processes.” Phivolcs cautioned that this could lead to “further explosive eruptions” or possibly a “hazardous magmatic eruption.”

Communities on the western slopes of Kanlaon reported experiencing “coarse ashfall and sulfurous odors” on Monday evening. Phivolcs recommended that affected residents “cover their nose and mouth with a damp, clean cloth or dust mask” to protect themselves.

Furthermore, a permanent danger zone with a 4-kilometer radius around the volcano has been established, and this area should be avoided.

4 Barangay of Canlaon City evacuated

In response to the eruption, Canlaon City authorities have ordered the evacuation of four barangays. Mayor Jose Chubasco Cardenas of Canlaon City, Negros Oriental, has issued an evacuation order for residents in four barangays: Masulog, Malaiba, Lumapao, and Pula.

Stay alert and make sure to prepare essential items such as water and food,” Cardenas advised in a video shared by Aksyon Radyo Bacolod on Facebook.

In response to the situation in Canlaon City, Negros Oriental, Mayor Jose Chubasco Cardenas has called for the evacuation of residents in four barangays: Masulog, Malaiba, Lumapao, and Pula.

Before Monday’s eruption, Kanlaon had been under Alert Level 1 since March 11, 2020. However, Phivolcs had noted “above background earthquake activity for the past month” and reported that sulfur dioxide emissions had averaged about 1,273 tons per day in 2024. Kanlaon’s previous eruption was a phreatic, or steam-driven event, which occurred nearly six and a half years ago on December 20, 2017. At that time, the volcano was also under Alert Level 2 on a scale from 0 (normal) to 5 (hazardous eruption in progress).

Kanlaon is among the Philippines’ approximately two dozen active volcanoes. Currently, it is the only volcano at Alert Level 2. Other volcanoes such as Mayon in Albay, Bulusan in Sorsogon, and Taal in Batangas are all at Alert Level 1.